NAC vs NAD vs NR vs Niacin vs NMN: What Are the Differences?
NAC vs NAD vs NR vs Niacin? Due to the small alphabetical difference, many customer are often mix up with these supplements. We will cover the essentials and explain about each of these supplements below.
NAD+ is a substrate for a number of important enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which is known as a classic longevity protein. NAD+ is also essential in metabolic processes such as creating ATP in your mitochondria. It accepts and donates electrons and is used in oxidation-reduction reactions in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
Level of NAD
The levels of NAD in our body determine the speed of aging process. In younger cells and tissues, the levels of NAD are higher. As a result, younger people tend to have better physical activity, cognitive function and potential for cell repair and regeneration. As we grow, the levels of NAD in our body start to decline. This is reflected in the form of slowed cognitive response, loss of memory and reduced agility.
Research about NAD
Research suggests it may be possible to reverse mitochondrial decay with dietary supplements that increase cellular levels of a molecule called NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
NAD is a linchpin of energy metabolism, among other roles, and its diminishing level with age has been implicated in mitochondrial deterioration. Supplements containing nicotinamide riboside, or NR, a precursor to NAD that’s found in trace amounts in milk, might be able to boost NAD levels. In support of that idea, half a dozen Nobel laureates and other prominent scientists are working with two small companies offering NR supplements.
Harvard’s David Sinclair and colleagues
The NAD story took off toward the end of 2013 with a high-profile paperby Harvard’s David Sinclair and colleagues. Sinclair, recall, achieved fame in the mid-2000s for research on yeast and mice that suggested the red wine ingredient resveratrol mimics anti-aging effects of calorie restriction. This time his lab made headlines by reporting that the mitochondria in muscles of elderly mice were restored to a youthful state after just a week of injections with NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide), a molecule that naturally occurs in cells and, like NR, boosts levels of NAD.
NAD boosters might work synergistically with supplements like resveratrol to help reinvigorate mitochondria and ward off diseases of aging. Elysium is banking on this potential synergy—its NR-containing supplement includes a resveratrol-like substance called pterostilbene (pronounced tero-STILL-bean), which is found in blueberries and grapes.
While resveratrol has hogged the anti-aging spotlight over the past decade, unsung researchers in places like Oxford, Miss., have quietly shown that pterostilbene is a kind of extra-potent version of resveratrol. The pterostilbene molecule is nearly identical to resveratrol’s except for a couple of differences that make it more “bioavailable” (animal studies indicate that about four times as much ingested pterostilbene gets into the bloodstream as resveratrol). Test-tube and rodent studies also suggest that pterostilbene is more potent than resveratrol when it comes to improving brain function, warding off various kinds of cancer and preventing heart disease.
How excited should we be about all this? If I were a middle-aged mouse, I’d be ready to spend some of the nickels and dimes I’d dragged off the sidewalk to try NR supplements. Even before Sinclair’s paper, researchers had shown in 2012that when given doses of NR, mice on high-fat diets gained 60 percent less weight than they did on the same diets without NR. Further, none of the mice on NR showed signs of diabetes, and their energy levels improved. The scientists reportedly characterized NR’s effects on metabolism as “nothing short of astonishing.”
But the paucity of human data gives me pause. Nobel laureates notwithstanding, I plan to wait until more is known before jumping up from the supper table to run out for some NR. Besides, it probably won’t be long before more data come out given the growing buzz about NAD.
NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine)
NAC inhibits cellular entry and replication of some respiratory viruses, assists in clearing thickened mucous from the airways, suppresses inflammatory signalling, and may help mitigate viral infection-induced cytokine storm (Ref).
In a paper on NAC for COVID-19, published in the October 2020 issue of Clinical Immunology titled “Therapeutic Blockade of Inflammation in Severe COVID-19 Infection With Intravenous N-acetylcysteine”, which is a case series report of 10 patients (including one with G6PD deficiency) given intravenous NAC. NAC elicited clinical improvement and markedly reduced inflammatory marker, CRP in all patients. NAC mechanism of action may involve the blockade of viral infection and the ensuing cytokine storm.
In another paper from ChemRxiv (2021), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) forms covalent conjugates that resulted in threefold weakening in the binding affinity of spike protein with ACE2 receptor. Antiviral assay using VeroE6 cells showed that NAC caused 54.3% inhibition in SARS-CoV-2 replication.
NAC vs NAD
NADPH (also often confused with NAD) is responsible for generating free radicals in immune cells by NADPH oxidase. These radicals are used to destroy pathogens.
NAD+ Helps Restore Age-Related Muscle Deterioration
Their study, published in the journal Cell Reports, showed that protein aggregates (amyloid) could be blocked by boosting the levels of NAD+, a biomolecule that is also essential for maintaining mitochondrial function.
Naturally Boosting NAD Levels
2. Nicotinamide Riboside Dietary Supplements
4. Too Much Sunlight May not be Good!
5. Foods which Boost NAD Levels
There are certain foods which can boost NAD levels in the body. Some of them include:
– Dairy Milk
Research has indicated that cow’s milk is a good source of Riboside Nicotinamide (RN). A litre of fresh cow’s milk contains about 3.9µmol of NAD+. So while you’re enjoying a refreshing glass of milk, you’re actually getting younger and healthier!
Here’s another reason for you to enjoy fish! some varieties of fish like tuna, salmons and sardines are rich sources of NAD+ for the body.
Many people like mushrooms and them as a regular food item in their regular diet. But did you know that mushrooms, especially the crimini mushrooms, also help in naturally boosting NAD levels? Yes, that’s true. So, enjoy eating the mushrooms and continue to look and younger and more youthful!
Yeast is an ingredient which is used for making bread and other bakery products, it contains Riboside Nicotinamide (RN), which is a precursor of NAD. Here’s another reason for you to enjoy your favorite pastries or buns whenever you visit the bakery! Enjoy your favorite food while boosting NAD levels at the same time. How cool is that!
– Green Vegetables
Green vegetables contain all sorts of nutrients in them which are beneficial in a variety of ways. Recently, it has come to light that green vegetables are also a good source of NAD for the body. Some of these vegetables include peas and asparagus.
– Whole Grains
As discussed earlier, Vitamin B3 also contains RN, the precursor for NAD. However, when you cook or process vegetables, food items or grains, they lose their nutrition as well as the vitamin source. Therefore, it is recommended that you should also eat raw vegetables and take whole grains instead of processed foods.
– Cut Down on Alcoholic Beverages
NAD is responsible for maintaining the overall metabolic processes of the body. Alcohol tends to interfere with these processes and reduce the efficacy of NAD. Therefore, you should avoid excessive intake of alcoholic drinks since they are also not good for your health.
What is the difference between NAD and NAD+?
The short answer is that there is a difference, at least between NAD and NADH. Generally speaking, when NAD is used, NAD is being talked about generally. And often when using “NAD” it is referring to the specific chemical forms of NAD, NAD+ and NADH, interchangeably.
NAD exists in two forms: NAD+ and NADH. Its ability to switch between these two forms is what allows NAD to carry out its main function—carrying electrons from one reaction to another in the process of metabolism and energy production.
As an electron carrier, NAD+ and NADH help to convert the nutrients in your food into a form of energy your cells can use.
NR or Nicotinamide Riboside vs NMN
While most anti-aging products try to reverse signs of aging on your skin, nicotinamide riboside — also called niagen — aims to reverse signs of aging from inside your body.
There are multiple precursors to NAD+, each with its own physiologic effects. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a popular one with several notable benefits over other precursors like niacin (NA) and niacinamide (NAM). NA, for instance, may induce uncomfortable flushing, while NAM may inhibit sirtuin at high doses, both undesirable effects.
In Scientific Reports, researchers noted:
Nicotinamide riboside, or niagen, is an alternative form of vitamin B3, also called niacin.
Like other forms of vitamin B3, nicotinamide riboside is converted by your body into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme or helper molecule.
Nicotinamide riboside supplements — such as niagen — have quickly become popular because they appear to be especially effective at raising NAD+ levels (Trusted Source). Nicotinamide riboside is also found in trace amounts in cows’ milk, yeast, and beer (Trusted Source).
The image above also shows how niacin (NA) also finds its way to become NAD+. Niacin is also a useful supplement to use in increasing NAD+ levels. You just need to limit the dose to about 25 mg, which most is a dose low enough not to cause any flushing. Higher doses are not likely as effective as NMN and exercise in producing NAD+.
Want to Live Longer Life?
The five low-risk factors are the following:
1. Avoid smoking. Low risk : never smoking.
2. Maintain a healthy weight. Low risk : Body Mass Index in the range of 18.5 to 24.9. BMI is a ratio of weight to height that, though imperfect, offers a quick and easy assessment of weight status.
3. Exercise regularly. Low risk : moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise for 30 or more minutes a day.
4. Consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Low risk : one-half to one drink per day for women and one-half to two drinks per day for men.
5. Maintain an overall healthy diet. Low risk : a diet with high intakes of vegetables, fruit, nuts, whole grains, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and low intakes of red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, trans fat, and sodium.